Ultrasound Reference Values

Echo –
Diastology –
e’ > 8 cm/s = Normal
E/e’ >15 = elevated filling pressure (<8 = normal)

Bladder – LxWxHx0.75 >100mL = urinary retention

Fetal Heart Rate –
120-160 (can be a bit higher in early pregnancies)
Abnormal IUP
Absence of yolk sac if mean sac diameter (MSD) >10mm
Absence of fetal pole (FP) if MSD >18mm
No fetal heart motion if FP >5mm on transvaginal ultrasound
Gestational sac >2cm without yolk sac or fetal pole (Blighted ovum)
When you should see stuff on ultrasound:
Gestational sac @ 4-6 weeks
Yolk sac @ 5-7 weeks
Fetal pole >7 weeks

Ocular – Width >5mm measured 3mm behind globe (think 3.x5 card) = Abnormal

0.5 cm stripe at Morrison pouch ~ 500cc of fluid
1 cm stripe at Morrison pouch ~ 1,000cc of fluid

>3cm abnormal
>5cm with hypotension = ruptured AAA until proven otherwise

Small Bowel Obstruction
Abnormal bowel diameter = >2.5cm
Abnormal bowel wall thickness = >4mm

Appendix – >6mm + non-compressible = suspicious for appendicits

Pylorus –
Muscle wall thickness >3mm = abnormal
Length >14mm = abnormal

Gallbladder –
Common Bile Duct
>7mm abnormal
>10mm abnormal in pts without GB
Rule of thumb = CBD should be less than the first number of patients age.
Anterior gallbladder wall  >4mm abnormal

Liver – Hepatomegaly = >15.5cm in superior-inferior dimension

Normal values –
<12 cm longitudinal
<8 cm transverse
<4 cm thick (deep)

Abnormal size = >3cm in anterior/posterior dimension
Abnormal pancreatic duct size = >2 mm

Pleural effusion –
Maximal distance in supine patient at end-expiration in cranio-caudal dimension
mL of pleural fluid = mm x 20

Pleural thickness <2mm = normal (reference)

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